### M.Tech. (Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Engineering)

**Courses for M Tech (Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Engineering) Entrance Test**

- Higher mathematics
- Basic principles of chemical engineering
- Petrochemical technology
- Fluid mechanics & mechanical operations
- Reaction kinetics and reactor design
- Chemical engineering thermodynamics
- Crude oil and petroleum products
- Petroleum engineering
- Petroleum refining processes
- Heat transfer operations
- Mass transfer operations
- Polymer science and technology
- Natural gas processing
- Transport phenomena
- Process equipment and piping design
- Process dynamics and control
- Process engineering and plant design
- Industrial instrumentation
- Fertilizer technology

**SYLLABI OF THE ****COURSES**

**HIGHER MATHEMATICS**

Vector differentiation, scalar field, gradient of a scalar field, vector field, divergence & curves of vector fields, solenoidal angle and irrotational field. Determination of potential function.

Vector integration, line integral, conservation fields, Gauss divergence theorems, Greens theorem and Stokes theorem.

Laplace’s transformation, shifting theorems, transforms of derivatives and integrals. Differentiation and Integration of transforms. Inverse transforms, Application with single and system of linear differential equations.

Boundary Value Problems, solution of 2D laplace equation in Cartesian and polar co-ordinates, solution of one dimensional diffusion and wave equation by method of separation of variables.

**BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING**

Introduction to Chemical Engineering and role of Chemical Engineer, Units and dimensions, stoichiometric and composition relationship, application of thermodynamics and chemical principles in estimation of physical properties, ideal and real gas laws, critical properties, properties of mixtures and solutions, phase equilibrium, vapor pressure

Material balance without and with chemical reactions

Energy balance without and with chemical reactions

Combined material and energy balance: Psychrometery, unsteady state material and energy balance, industrial applications.

**PETROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY**

History and importance of Petrochemical industry, growth in India, Classification of Petrochemicals, Feedstock of the Petrochemicals,

Preparation of feedstock, Primary cracking reactions-ethane cracking, propane cracking, naphtha and gas oil cracking; secondary reactions, recovery and separation of the feed stocks. Petrochemicals from C1, C2, C3, C4, & aromatics.

Mechanism and background of catalytic & non catalytic reactions of hydrocarbons, cracking, reforming, pyrolysis, alkylation.

Polymerization & oligomerization, Isomerization, hydrogenation, hydrodealkylation, disproportionation, nitration. Methanol, formaldehyde, Ethylene oxide and glycol Acrylates, Methyl methacrylate, Acrylic acid, DMT, terephthalic acid Phenol, acetone, linear alkyl benzene, caprolactum Vinyl chloride, styrene, phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride Properties, applications and production technologies of the following commodity polymers – polyethylene, LLDPE, HDPE, polypropylene, polystyrene, PVC. Properties, applications and production technologies of the following engineering and thermoset polymers: ABS plastic, nylon-6, polycarbonate, epoxy resin, unsaturated polyester resin, rubber.

**FLUID MECHANICS & MECHANICAL OPERATIONS**

S.I. Units and dimensions, Types of Fluids: compressible & incompressible, Newtonian and non Newtonian, Pascal’s Law Hydrostatic law, peizometric head, Manometers Buoyancy. Fluid Flow Operation: Pipe and tubes, pipe fittings, Bernoulli’s equation application, application to pumps and blowers. Measurement of fluid flow through pipes, orifices meter, venturimeter, pitot tube, Rota meter. Fluid machinery, classification and performance of pumps, selection and specifications.

Particle size analysis, shape factor, sieve analysis cumulative and differential plot, size distribution, equivalent particle diameter, volume surface mean diameter, median diameter surface area and particle populations of a mixture, size estimation in subsive range, particle cut diameter. Ideal and actual screen operation efficiency capacity and effectiveness of screens Industrial screens.

Size reduction: Theory of crushing, laws of combination, power requirement. Types of crushers and grinders, principles and operations of industrial crushers and grinders, close and open grinding. Storage of Solids: characteristics of solid masses, bins, silos, hoppers, Janssen’s equation.

Particle Mechanics: Drag From immersed body, Laws of motion of Particles or drops in a fluid, calculation of terminal settling velocity in stokes, Transition and Newton ranges. Particle Separation: Free and hindered settling sedimentation elutriation, settling chambers batch and continuous thickness, floatation cell Characteristics of rotating fluids centrifuges and cyclone separation, Venturi scrubber, Electro-static precipitator

Flow Through Packed Beds: Types of packing, Characteristic of packing, pressure drop in packed beds Kozeny-Carman equation, flooding and loading. Fluidization: General Characteristics of fluidized beds, aggregate and particulate fluidization, calculation of incipient fluidization velocity. Filtration Theory of filtration and washing filter aids, filter media types of filtration plate and frame filter press, rotary drum filter.

**REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN**

Rate of Reaction , elementary and non-elementary reactions molecularity and order of reaction, thermodynamics formulations of rates, mechanism of reaction, Temperature dependency from thermodynamics, arrhenius, collision and activated complex theories.

Integral and differential methods for analyzing kinetics data, interpretation of constant volume batch reactor data for zero, first second and third order reactions, half life period, irreversible reactions in parallel and series, auto catalytic reaction, shifting order reactions enzyme catalyzed and surface catalyzed reactions. Interpretation of variable volume batch reactor data for zero, first and second order reactions.

Design equations for batch, plug flow, back mix, flow and semi batch reactors for isothermal, adiabatic reactions holding time and space time for flow system Design of batch plug flow and mixed flow reactors for first and second order single reactions. Optimum reactor size plug flow reactors in series / parallel Equal and different size of mixed reactors in series and finding the best system for a given conversion recycle reactor

Multiple reactions, independent, parallel and series reactions; mixed reactions, instantaneous and over all fractional yield, choice of reactors for simple and complex reactions and multiple reactor system; Introduction to thermal stability of reactors; temperature and pressure effects and optimal temperature progression for first order reactions; Introduction to Residence time distribution of fluid in vessel.

**CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS**

The scope of thermodynamics, dimensions and units, measures of amount or size, force, temperature, pressure, work, energy and heat.

The first law of thermodynamics and other basic concepts, Joules’ experiment, internal energy, the first law of thermodynamics, energy balance for closed systems, thermodynamic state and state functions, equilibrium, the phase rule, the reversible process, constant volume and constant pressure process, enthalpy, heat capacity.

The second law of thermodynamics, statements of the second law, heat engines, thermodynamic temperature scales, entropy, entropy changes of an ideal gas, mathematical statement of the second law, entropy balance for open systems, calculation of ideal work, the third law of thermodynamics.

Refrigeration and Liquefaction: the Carnot refrigerator, the vapour – compression cycle, the choice of refrigerant, absorption refrigeration, the heat pump, liquefaction process.

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium: The nature of equilibrium, the phase rule-Duchem’s theorem, VLE –Quantitative behaviour, VLE by modified Raoult’s Law, VLE from k-value correlations.

Solution thermodynamics: theory, fundamental property relation, the chemical potential and phase equilibria, partial properties, ideal-gas mixtures, fugacity and fugacity coefficients, pure species, species in solution, generalized correlations for the fugacity coefficient, the ideal solution, excess properties. Application ; liquid phase properties from VLE data, models for the excess Gibb’s energy, property changes of mixing, heat effects of mixing processes.

Chemical Reaction Equilibria: The reaction coordinate, application of equilibrium criteria to chemical reactions, the standard Gibbs. Energy change and the equilibrium constant, effect of temperature on the equilibrium constants, relation of equilibrium constants to composition, equilibrium conversions for single reactions, phase rule and Duhem’s theorem for reacting systems.

**CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS**

Indian Petroleum Industry, transportation and storage of crude oil, characterization of crude oil, crude selection for refinery processing. Classification and Composition of Petroleum, evaluation of crude oil, Bench mark crude, ultimate and Chemical Composition, Non hydrocarbon Compounds in petroleum, physical and thermal properties, TBP Distillation of crude petroleum.

Present and future refinery configuration, atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation for fuel and lube refining, Petroleum products and their quality control tests; LPG, naphtha , Motor Spirit , Kerosene , ATF Diesel fuels, fuel oils, Petroleum Waxes, Bitumen, properties and test methods; Adulteration of petroleum products.

Finishing processes, caustic washing, Merox process, Hydrofining, sulfur removal processes, Fuel additives and blending, Euro & Bharat standards.

**PETROLEUM ENGINEERING**

Overview & Structure of Petroleum Industry, Origin and occurrence of oil & gas, migration and accumulation of oil and gas, source and reservoir rocks, physical properties of oil bearing rocks, carbonate reservoirs, fracture, anticlines etc, types of reserves fluids, rocks and fluid properties.

Oil & gas exploration methods, direct oil finding methods, geological and geophysical methods, basics principles of oil field development planning

Introduction to drilling operations, planning of drilling programme, drilling equipment, basics of drilling mud functions, well completion fundamentals.

Production principles, types of reservoir drives, primary oil recovery, secondary oil recovery, enhanced oil recovery methods.

**PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES**

Review of Distillation processes. Thermal conversion processes, conventional thermal cracking process. Visbreaking and design variables of visbreaking. Coking – Fluid coking, flexicoking, delayed coking.

Catalytic conversion processes – fluid catalytic cracking with special reference to catalyst and reactor design development. Hydrocracking – catalyst and design modifications, hydrogen production.

Reforming – Types of catalysts. Hydrotreating processes, Hydrodesulfurisation, alkylation, Polymerization and Isomerisation. Cost estimation of these processes.

Evaluation of crude for LOBS, steps in preparation of LOBS, Deasphalting, Solvent Extraction-types of solvents available and their comparison, Dewaxing- solvent and catalytic and Hydrofinishing of LOBS, hydrogenation processes for LOBS production, Wax separation and preparation as a finished product. Introduction to used oil re-refining.

**HEAT TRANSFER OPERATIONS**

Steady State heat conduction in one dimension: heat conduction through plane wall, composite wall, single layer cylinder, multi layer cylinder, sphere, Fourier’s Law of conduction and thermal conductivity, critical thickness of insulation, overall heat transfer coefficients

Forced Convection: forced convection past planar surface, inside cylindrical pipes and tubes and in non-circular sections, forced convection for external flow normal to tubes, tube banks.

Heat Transfer by Free Convection: Governing equation for free convection, working correlations for free convection, analytical solution of free convection past vertical plane surfaces.

Heat Transfer in Boiling and Condensing: working correlations of film condensation, dropwise condensation, heat transfer for boiling of a liquid, working correlations for pool boiling, forced convection boiling.

Heat transfer by radiation: basic definition, laws of radiation, black body, gray body, shape factors

Heat Exchangers: Various types, general characteristics, overall heat transfer coefficient of heat exchanger, heat exchanger mean temperature difference, heat exchanger effectiveness and number of transfer units , performance of heat exchanger and design of heat exchanger.

Evaporation and Evaporators: types of evaporators, their construction and operation, evaporator auxiliaries, principles of evaporation, single effect evaporator, multiple effect evaporator, modes of feed supply to the evaporator, evaporator selection, effect of boiling point on multiple effect evaporator.

**MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS**

General Introduction: Mass transfer operations and its classifications, Diffusion mass transfer, Mass transfer coefficient, Mass transfer models, Mass transfer with chemical reactions

Gas Absorption Operations: Equilibrium, Choice of solvents, co-solvents, co-current and counter current operations, packed bed and staged columns.

Humidification Operations: Psychrometry, Adiabatic humidification and dehumidification operations, Packed bed columns, Humidification equipments.

Drying: Fundamentals, drying curves, equipment for drying Equipment for Gas-Liquid Operations: Sparged vessels, mechanically agitated vessels.

**POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY**

Classification of polymers, Composition and structure of polymers, Linear branched and cross – linked polymers, Molecular weights (Mn, Mw, Mv & Mz) of polymers, Polydispersity and Mol. Wt. Distribution in polymers, Random, alternate, block and graft co – polymers, Methods of investigation of polymer structure like X – Ray diffraction, NMR – Spectroscopy, Electron microscopy.

Step – polymerization, basic analysis of polymerization kinetics, kinetics of self–catalyzed polymerization, molecular weight control. Radical chain polymerization, kinetics of chain polymerization, Initiators, Chain transfer agents, Inhibitors. Techniques of polymerization Bulk, Solution, Suspension & Emulsion polymerization.

Visco – elastic properties of polymers, Hooke’s equation Newton’s equation, Stress – strain relationship, Maxwell, Voiget and Burger model. Glass transition temperature, Effect of plasticizers on Tg, Heat distortion temperature. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of polymers.

Extrusion of plastics, screw design, types of die. Injection molding, injection unit design, clamping unit design, types of injection mould. Blow molding, parson programming, blow moulds. Rotational molding, types of machinery, root – moulds. Introduction to fiber reinforced plastics, various molding methods. Compounding methods.

**NATURAL GAS PROCESSING**

Natural Gas-origin and occurrence, properties of rocks, physical behavior of Natural Gas systems, pure substances-vapor pressure, the phase rule, phase behavior of mixtures: binary, ternary and complex, molecular theory of gases and liquids, phase equilibrium calculations, k-values from equation of state, properties of natural gases (physical & thermal), compressibility factor from theorm of corresponding states, introduction to natural gas production.

Natural gas- liquid separation, separation principles, separation equipment, low temperature separation. Water-hydrocarbon phase behaviour, measurement of water content in Natural gases, Hydrate formation and prevention of hydrates, Gas dehydration- types of processes.

Acid gases in natural gas, reasons for removal, acid gas treatment, types of processes available, physical and chemical absorbents, adsorbents, selection of adsorbents and/absorbents, Natural gas storage, storage in Depleted Oil/Gas reservoirs, Aquifers and Salt Caverns, Development of Storage sites, Transportation of Natural Gas-Pipeline and tanker.

**TRANSPORT PHENOMENA**

General Introduction to Transport Processes: analysis of momentum transport process, principle of shell balance, laminar, rectilinear steady flow of incompressible fluids in conduits and thin layer. Flow of falling film, flow between parallel plates, flow through circular pipes, capillary flow viscometer, flow through annular, adjacent flow of two immiscible fluids.

Analysis of thermal transport processes: Fouriers law of heat conduction, steady one dimensional heat conduction without and with internal heat source, conduction through plane wall, hollow cylinder, composite wall, multilayer cylinder, overall heat transfer coefficient, critical thickness of insulation, heat conduction with internal electrical/nuclear/viscous and chemical heat.

Analysis of species transport processes: Definition of concentration, velocity, flux in multi species system, Fick’s Law of diffusion, continuity equation for binary system and transport of species through annulus.

Macroscopic Analysis of momentum, heat and species transport: Macroscopic mass balance, momentum balance, mechanical energy balance, use of macroscopic balance equations, power requirement for pipeline flow, efflux time of tank

Interphase transport of momentum/ heat/ species in turbulent flow: definition of friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, binary species transfer coefficient, interphase momentum/ heat/ species transport in circular tubes.

**PROCESS EQUIPMENT AND PIPING DESIGN**

Classification, selection, design and specification of selected process equipment like pumps, heat exchangers, drums, distillation columns, reactors, mixers and agitators.

Introduction to the basic principles and criteria of pressure vessel design, elementary idea of theories of failure of vessel under pressure, introduction to national and international design codes and their scopes, Design of cylindrical and spherical shells under internal and external pressure, optimum height to diameter ratio of pressure vessels, design of storage tanks.

Introduction to high pressure vessel design, design of tall vertical vessels. Selection and design of flanges and support for vessels and piping, selection and design of heads and closures.

Piping design, classification of pipes and tubes, important fittings and valves and their uses, color codes for pipelines, selection of optimum pipe size, schedule number, piping layout.

**PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL**

Process Control systems, Process variables, control configurations & physical elements of a control System. Block diagrams, Dynamic Modeling of processes, Linearization

Response of linear first and second order systems to step, Pulse, ramp and sinusoidal inputs, Higher order systems, Transportation delay.

Modes of control action, Controllers and final control elements, closed loop transfer functions and responses. Stability analysis of control systems, Root locus Method, Frequency response analysis.

Introduction to Advance Control Systems, Control systems with multiple loops, feed forward and Ratio Control systems. Process Control Using Digital Computers, Digital Computer control loops . Continuous – time to discrete – time systems, Discrete time response of dynamic systems.

**PROCESS ENGINEERING AND PLANT DESIGN**

Principles of process synthesis, Engineering of large scale – low cost processing system, creation and screening of plausible alternatives (reaction and separation sequences), reaction path synthesis, separation task selection, task integration.

Process Selection, study of alternative processes, flow diagrams, synthesis of steady state flow sheet, selection of plant site, plant layout and installation, start up shut down and operating guidelines.

Structure and analysis of systems with respect to design variable selection, Algorithm for simple and recycle systems, Analysis of some typical separation operations, fundamentals and applications of Pinch Technology for grass root design and revamp.

Applications of graphical and analytical methods of optimization, Numerical search methods, search of optimum over single and several design variables, Optimum of process systems, linear programming.

**INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION**

Classification of measuring instruments, dynamic and static characteristic, introduction to various process variables, introduction to modern techniques for temperature, pressure, flow, motion, level measurement, etc.

Introduction to analog transducers, digital transducers, A to D and D to A conversion, intermediate elements, amplifiers, compensator, filters, data transmission.

Application of digital computation in large-scale industries/complexes, input output structure, interfacing techniques, Human Machine interface, touch screen system.

Introduction to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Structure, ROM, EPROM and EEPROM. Input/output cards, Introduction to PLC programming, introduction to DCS system, modern methods of instrumental analysis.

**FERTILIZER TECHNOLOGY**

Sulphuric Acid, Nitric Acid, and phosphoric acid, Biofertilizers , case studies.

Macro- and micro nutrients, fertilizer Grades, Various fertilizers and their demand and production in India, Synthesis gas with reference to various feed stocks and technologies.

Nitrogenous fertilizers , Nitrogen , Hydrogen , Ammonia Synthesis , Urea , Ammonium Sulphate, Ammonium Nitrate , Calcium Ammonium Nitrate.

Phosphatic fertilizers, super phosphate , Triple super phosphate, Mono and diammonium phosphate , Nitro phosphate , Mixed Fertilizers ,.

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