M.A. / M. Sc. (Geography)

The objective (Multiple Choice) as well as short answer type questions will be asked covering the following courses taught at Graduation level.

1. Geomorphology : Theories of the origin of the earth – Laplace, Chemberlin & Mouition, Big Bang; the constitution of the earth’s interior; Isostasy; Wagener’s theory and Plate Tectonics; earthquakes and volcanoes; Kober and Holmes theories of mountain building; the work of running water, glacier and wind; karst topography; concept of cycle of erosion 0 Davis and Penck.

2. Climatology and Oceanography : Composition and structure of the atmosphere; insolution and heat budget; horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature, pressure and wind; forms of precipitation and types of rainfall; classification and properties of air masses and fronts; tropical and temperate cyclones; Koppen’s climatic classification; relief features of the ocean floor; vertical and horizontal distribution of salinity and temperature; tides and ocean currents; ocean deposits.

3. Geography of Resources and its Utilization : Soil formation and soil types; types of forest and forest products; production and distribution of iron ore, copper, coal, petroleum and hydro-power; solar energy; water conservation and future prospects; distribution, density and growth of world population; concept of optimum, over and under population; population resource regions of the world; production and distribution of wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and tea; industries – iron and steel, cotton textile and sugar, distribution and characteristics of primary; secondary and tertiary activities.

4. Evolution of Geographical Thought : Contribution of Strabo, Ptolemy, Al-biruni, Ibn- Khaldum, Humboldt, Ritter, Ratzel and Vidal-de-la-Blache; environmental determinism, possibilism and stop and go determinism; quantitative revolution, behavioural geography, radical geography and welfare geography.

5. Major World Environment : Physical and human environment in equatorial, monsoon, hot desert, tropical and temperature grasslands, Mediterranean, tundra and taiga regions; air, water and soil pollution.

6. Geography of India : Structure and relief; evolution of extra peninsular drainage and its major river system; characteristics of peninsular drainage and its major river system; origin and development of monsoon and its mechanism; El-Nino and its effect on Indian weather; identificatioin of flood prone areas and draught prone areas; types of forests and its distribution, characteristics and economic importance, deforestation and its consequences, social forestry and its significance, distribution and characteristics of soils in India; soil erosion and conservation; distribution and growth of population; agro – climate regions; the Green Revolution; distribution and production of rice, wheat, cotton and tea; production and distribution of coal, petroleum, hydro-electricity and nuclear energy; localization factors and spatial pattern of major industries – iron and steel industry and cotton textile industry.

7. Practical Aspects in Geography : Nature and sources of geographic data; classification and significance of maps; definition, significance and types of scale; methods of showing relief; representation of population, agricultural and transport data by various Cartographic techniques including choropleth and isopleth; classification, identification, transformation and choice of map projections; measures of central tendency and dispersion – arithmetic mean, median, mode, standard deviation, co-efficient of variation; types and utility of aerial photographs, chief elements of aerial photo interpretation; application of remote sensing in geographical studies; remote sensing platform and sensors – active, passive and micro wave remote sensing.

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