Discipline Courses II: (No. of Periods- 56; Marks – 100)
|III||Ethnography, Folklore andCulture in Tamil Literature|
|IV||Tamil Literature and Ecology|
|V||Tamil Literature and Science|
|VI||Tamil Literature and Psychology|
|VII||Tamil Literature and History|
|VIII||Tamil Literature and Sociology|
Every semester Teaching will be spread over 16 weeks including 2 weeks for review.
Ethnography, Folklore and Culture in Tamil Literature (Marks 75+25)
The aim of the course is to teach the students to read literature as the source to understand and explain the Ethnography, Folklore and Culture of a society. It will train the students to write on the specialized subject of Ethnography, Folklore and Culture with the help of literary texts and to incorporate this knowledge in understanding of literature and other studies. This course will enhance the ability in language usage by developing the technical terminology of the specific fields of knowledge. The teaching method of this course includes the identification of texts which contains the elements of Ethnography, Folklore and Culture in Tamil. The intense study of select texts will equip the students to understand the particular field of knowledge in Tamil and inculcate an ability to write on these disciplines. This study shall explain the role of literature to understand Ethnography, Folklore and Culture and the need of these disciplines in understanding and production of literary texts.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
|Meaning and Definition: Ethnography, Folklore and Culture.||15||10|
|Locating Ethnography, Folklore and Culture of Tamil Literature.||15||10|
|Analysis of Tamil Literary text through Ethnography||15||12|
|Analysis of Tamil Literary text through Folklore||15||12|
|Analysis of Tamil Literary text in the context of Culture||15||12|
|Study of Literary Texts:|
i. Ancient Tamil text: Cilappatikaaram: Nadukaan kaathai, Kadukaan kaathai, Vettuvavari, Aycchiyarkuravai, kunrakkuravai and Valtthukkathai.
ii. Modern Tamil text: Gopallagramam By Ki.Rajanarayanan
1. Cilappatikaaram (Nadukaan kaathai, Kadukaan kaathai, Vettuvavari, Aycchiyarkuravai, kunrakkuravai and Valtthukkathai only), Tirunelveli: Southindia Saiva Siddhantha Works Publishing Society.
2. Ki.Rajanarayanan, 1976, Gopallagramam, Chennai:Vasahar Vattam
1. Baktavathsala Bharathi, 2009, “Inavaraiviyal”, Panpaattu Manidaviyal Chidambaram: Meyyappan Pathippakam. pp.117-119
2. Sivasubramanian, A., 2009, Inavaraiviyalum Tamil Novalum, Chennai:Parisal Veliyeedu. pp.09-45
3. Dhananjeyan, A., 2006, “Inavaraiviyalum Ilakkiyamum”, “Thamilil Inavaraiviyal Kavithai”, “Karukku: Daliththukalin Suya Inavaraiviyal” Vilimbunilai Makkal Valakkaarukal: Inavaraiviyal Aaivu, Pondicherry: Vallinam pp. 02-27; 40-52 and 53-68
4. Gnanathai, M., 2006, “Inavaraiviyalum Kathaippaadalum” in Maravar Kathaippaadalkal: Inavaraiviyal Aaivu, Chennai:Kaavya. pp. 53-64
5. Lourdu.S.D., 1990, “Folklore in Tamilnadu: A Survey” Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature (Vol I), Edited by John Samuel, Chennai:Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 451-452
6. Lourdu,S.D., 2000, “Naattaar Valakkaarriyalum Ilakkiyamum” Naattaar Valakkaarriyal: Sila Adippadaikal, Palayamcottai: Naattaar Valakkaarriyal Aaivu Maiyyam, St. Xaviers College. pp.01-47 and 64-68
7. Geetha.Ko.Ve., 2006, Novelhalil Naattar Vazhzkkarrukal, Chennai: Thirukkural Pathippakam
8. Paramasivan, T.2001: “Ariyappadatha Thamizhakam” Panpaattu Asaivukal, Nagercoil: Kalachchuvadu Pathippakam. pp.11-114
9. Muthaiah. P.S Mullai, 2006. Tamilar Iniya Vaazhvu, Chennai:Mullai Pathippakam.
10. Dhakshinamurthy. A, 2005: Tamilar Naakarikamum Panpaadum, Chennai: Yaazh Veliyeedu.
Tamil Literature and Ecology (Marks 75+25)
This course deal with the concept of land, nature and human life as depicted in Tamil literature from the perspective of eco-criticism. The concept of land division, ethnic culture and worldview of ancient Tamils will be explored with the help of the sources of classical Tamil literature. The eco-regional divisions of Tamil Nadu in various historical periods will be discussed in the light of literary sources. The representations of ecological issues of contemporary life in modern Tamil literature will be discussed in order to heighten the ecological awareness of students.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
1. Eco-criticism: theory and meaning 10 08
2. .Eco-criticism as a literary and cultural movement. 10 08
3. Ecology and Nature in Tamil literature: 15 12
i. Landscape and Tamil Poetry:Concept of Thinai
ii. Place of ‘karupporul’ in Akam Poems: Description of river, forests, flora and fauna
4. Ecological issues and Eco-politics in Modern Tamil Literature. 10 08
5. Intensive Study of literary texts from an ecological perspective. 30 20
(ii)Turvai by Dharman\
1. SSSWPS (Ed), Cirupanarrupadai, Tirunelveli: Southindia Saiva Siddhantha Works Publishing Society.
2. Dharman.So, 1996, Thuurvai, Kumbakonam: Akaram
1. Selvamony, Nirmal, 2011, “Tinai poetics and Tamil Poetry”, Horizons: Critical Perspectives on Language and Literature. Edited by Suresh Frederick. Thanjavur: Amirthamani Publications, pp 1-15. (ISBN: 978-81-920985-1-7)
2. Selvamony, Nirmal, 2012 “Interrelatedness: Tinai, Ecocriticism and Envirocriticism”, Gandhigram Literary Review 1.1 (Summer 2012) (61-80. ISSN:2278-8170)
3. Selvamony, Nirmal, 2008, “Tinai in Primal and Stratified Societies”, Indian Journal of Ecocriticism 1.1 (August 2008): (38-48. ISSN: 0974-2840)
4. Karthikesu Sivathambi, 2010, “Tinai-k-Kotpattin Camuga Atippataikal Pandai-t-Tamil-c-Camugam: Varalarrup Purithalai Nokki, NCBH, Chennai, PP.28-53
5. Thangarasu. Mu., 2000, Sangailakkiyathil Nilaviyal, Chennai: Tamilmalar Publication,
6. Sarathambal, S., 2005: “Sanka Ilakkiyamum Panpaattu-c-Culaliyalum (Mullai Nilam)”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy. S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp. 228- 239
7. Balaji, P., 2005, “Pandaiya Ilakkiyaththil Culaliyal- suya-c-Chulnilaiyial”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal :Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy. S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp.240-258
8. Anarkali, U., 2005, “Cankakaala Vaazhviyal Mathippukalum Curru-p-purach Chulalum”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal :Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-2), Edited by Krishnamurthy. S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp.162-171
9. Lakshmi, J.R., 2008, “Curru-c-Cuulal Oor Arimukam & Tamil Ilakkiyam Kaattum Curru-c-Cuulal Cinthanaikal” Curru- c-Cuulaliyal Kalvi-t- thittam, Chennai: Thirukkural Pathippakam. pp.15-25 and pp. 81-89
10. Balasubramanian, K.V., 2008, “Thinai-k-Kolkai” in Canka Ilakkiya Kolkai, Madurai: Minakshi Pathippakam. pp. 244-376
Tamil Literature and Science (Marks 75+25)
The aim of the course is to teach history of scientific thoughts of Tamilnadu with the reference of literary and philosophical texts of Tamil. This course train the students to identify the scientific concepts and ideas of Tamil society which are registered in literary texts along with some specialized treatises of Tamil to understand the tradition Tamil knowledge system. This course is to enable the students to incorporate the indigenous and traditional knowledge into contemporary knowledge system with the help of literature.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
1. Scientific Concepts of Ancient Tamils: 15 12
i Concept of Natural science in Tholkappiyam
ii. Scientific concepts in Sangam Literature
a. Scientific Concepts in Thirukkural.
2. Tamil traditional knowledge of agriculture and cultivation. 15 12
3.Scientific Concepts in Medieval Literature: 15 12
i. Concept of human body and mind in Siddha Tradition
ii. Medicine and Medical practices in Tamil Tradition
4. Astronomy and Astrology In Tamil Tradition. 15 12
5. Ship building and marine related knowledge in Tamil Tradition. 15 08
1. Rajeswari, R., 2005, “Tholkappiyaththil Ariviyal Sinthanaikal”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal: Ariviyal, Tolilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp. 01-11
2. Subramanian.S.V,1979, Ilakkiya-k- kanavugal, Chennai: Tamil Pathipagam
3. Vellaichamy. P., 2005, “Tamil Ilakkiyaththil Velaanmai Tholil Nutpankal” Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal: Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1) Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp.56-63
4. Dhakshinamurthy.A, 2005, “Pandaith Thamilarin Vaaniyal Arivu”, “Maruththuva-k-kalai”,Tamilar Naakarikamum Panpaadum, Chennai: Yaazh Veliyeedu. pp. 166-177 and 360-371
5. Subramanian.S.V. and Madavan.V.,1983, Heritage of Tamil: Siddha Medicine, Chennai: IITS
6. Shanmugam Pillai, Mu., 2002, “Kolum Naalum”, Sanga-t-tamilarin Valipatum Chatangukalum, Chennai: IITS.pp.164-206
7. Alphens Nathanial, M., “Tamil Ilakkiyaththil Marutthuvam”, Tamilar Marutthuvam, Nagercoil: Nesamony Tamilar Pathippakam. pp. 88-127
8. Senthee Natarajan, 2012, “Vattatthil Enthap pulliyum Thodakkappulli Aagalaam” Pulaippeti Enroru Vicithra Valakkam, Chennai: NCBH.
9. Narasaiah, 2005, “Inthiyak Kapparkalaium Kapparkuudankalum”, Kadal Vazhi Vanikam, Chennai: Pazhaniyappa Brothers. pp. 207-216
1. Kumari Mainthan, 2004, “Tholkaappiyaththil Velippadum Ariviyal Kotpaadukal- Ariviyal Anukumuraikal”, Indiya Varalaarril Puranankal, Ilakkiyankal, Vaaniyal, Madurai:Venkai Pathippagam. Pp.70-84
2. Palanichamy,Karuvai., 2005, “Thirukkural Uzhavu Or Ariviyal Anukumurai”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. Pp.73-80
3. Manavalan, A., 2005, “Puranaanuru Kaattum Palanthamilar Tholil Nutpam”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal: Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. Pp.191-204
4. Kanchana,R. 2005, “Ilakkiyaththil Nilaiyiyal uyirnuul Karuththukkal” Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. Pp: 219-227
5. Ilankovan, M. 2005, “Cankap Pura Nulkal vazhi Nirmelaanmai” Thamilarin Marabu-c- chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-1), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studie. Pp.46-63
6. Nilakandapillai, T., 2005, “Pazhanthamililakkiyaththil Kolkalum Koliyakkankalum”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-2), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. Pp.70-79
7. Minakshi Alagappan,K.,2005, “Tamilar Jothitaviyal- Or Ariviyal Chinthanai”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-2), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. Pp.86-98
8. Mahalakshmi, T., 2005, “Pandaithamilar Vaazhvil Jothita Vaaniyal Arivu”, Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal:Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-2), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies Pp:111-134
9. John Asirvatham, 1986, Tamil Ilakkiyaththil Ariviyal, Chennai: CLS
10. Niranjana Devi, R., 2004, “Tamil Naattu Maruththuvam”, Thenninthiya Maruththuva Varalaaru, Chennai:IITS. Pp. 156-222
11. Muthu.S.Nellai., 2006, Ariviyale Ilakkiyam, Chennai: Vellaiyampattu Sundaram.
12. Sujatha, 2005, “Ariviyal Punaikathaikalin Kurukal” Tamil Ini, 2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu publication. pp. 257-262
13. Chandrasekaran.T,(General editor),1950, Kappal Satthiram, Chennai:Oriental manuscript library.
Tamil Literature and Psychology (Marks75+25)
The aim of this course is to teach the basics of psychological theories and to understand the literature on the basis of the theories. This shall train the students to interpret Tamil literatures with the help of contemporary psychological theories and to explain various human behaviors depicted in literary texts. The character structure, theme and conflict in literary texts are taken for analysis on the basis of social and individual psychology with reference to classical and modern literature.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
1. Introduction: 10 08
2. Basic theory of psychology with reference to Freudian School.
3. Psychological aspects in Ancient Tamil Literature. 10 08
i. Concept of meyppatu in Tolkappiyam
ii. Concept of Love emotions in Sangam literature.
iii. Concept of mind in Thirukkural.
4. Concept of mind and body in Tamil philosophical tradition 15 12
i. Concept of mind and body in Manimekalai (Buddhist tradition)
ii. Concept of mind and body in Nilakeci (Jaina tradition)
iii. Concept of mind and body in Siddha tradition
5. Dreams in Tamil Literature: Psychological interpretations. 20 14
i. Silappathiharam: Kanatthiram Uraitha Kathai and Adaikkalak Kathai
ii. Thirukkural: kanavunilai Uraitthal (Kural: 1211-1220)
iii. Nachiyar Thirumozhi: Varanamayiram: Poem No. 556-566
iv. Kali-t-thokai (Poem Nos: 24,128,142,144,145 and 147)
6. Influence of Freudism in Modern Tamil Literature. 20 14
i. Freudism in Modern Tamil poetry and plays
ii. Freudism in Folk literature.
iii. Stream of consciousness in Tamil novels.
1. Pichamurthi 1985, “Uyirmakal” in Pichamurthi Kavithaigal, Chennai:Cre-A. pp.
2. Chellappa,C.S. 1977, Jeevanamsam, Chennai:Ezhutthu Pirachuram
1. Nalankilli, Aranka., 1999, Freudin Kalai Ilakkiya Ulappakuppayvu, Pondicherry: Vanidasan Pathippakam,.
2. Vidhyadaran, K.P., 2005, “Canka Ilakkiya Nampikkaikalum Ulaviyal Kuurukalum” Thamilarin Marabu-c-chelvankal :Ariviyal, Tholilnutpam (Vol-2), Edited by Krishnamurthy.S, Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp.331-343
3. Ashok, A.V. 2009: “Ulaviyal Nokkil Puthiya Pokkukal”,Nikazh Katturai Kalanchiyam, Edited by Gnaani, Chennai; Kaavya Pub. PP: 540-551
4. Ravichandran,T.K.(Tr), 1998: “Ulaviyal Enrraal Enna?Athai Ninkal Eppadi Arivir?”, Ulaviyal: Mikach Churukkamaana Arimukam Puthanatham: Adaiyaalam. PP.01-16.
5. Sarathambal, S.2003: “Avvaiyaar Paadalkalil Manamum Mozhiyum”, “Aandaal Aazhvaar Paadalkalil Penniya Ulappakuppaaivu- Penmozhi Oppeedu” Penniya Ulappakuppaaivum Penn Ezhuththum, Chennai: IITS. pp.37-54 and 55-64
6. Shanmugasundaram, S., 1991, Nattu-p-puraviyalil Ulaviyal Parvai, Chennai: IITS, pp.56-76
7. Saradhambal, S.,2004, “Ulaviyal”(pp1-5), “Ilakkiyamum Ulappahuppaaivum” (pp-6-22), “Thalaivan Nenchodu kilatthalum Freudin Ulappahuppaaivum” ( pp- 23-31), “Kalitthokai Kanavum Freudin Kanavukkolkaiyum” (pp-32-40), “Kural Kattum Kanavum Ulappahuppaaivum” (pp- 41-48), “Kambar Kattum kanavum Freudin Ulappahuppaaivum” (pp.49-57) in Ilakkiyamum Ulappahuppaaivum: Kolkaikalum Payilmuraikalum, Madurai: Harikaran Pathippakam
Tamil Literature and History (Marks:75+25)
The aim of this course is to teach the basics of historiography and historical writings to the students with the help of literary texts. This course shall train the students to read and interpret literary texts as a part of social, political and cultural history. The history of Tamilnadu is closely related with history of Tamil literature from ancient to modern period and literature has been the source of historical evidences and references. This course shall train the students to identify various components of historical sources from the literary texts and equip them to correlate history and literature in the process of understanding a society and culture.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
1. Introduction: relation between literature writing and history writing
i. Literature as a source of history 10 08
ii Difference between history writings and historical narratives
2. Ancient Tamil Literature and History. 10 10
i. Pathirru-p-pathu and the history of Chera dynasty
ii. Purananuru and the history of Pandiyas, Cholas and Chieftains of Sangam age
3. Oral Narratives and the History of Tamilnadu. 10 10
i. Ballads narrate the struggle between Kannada Kings and the Pandiyas of South Tamilnadu (14th-16th Century)
ii. Ballads narrate the struggle between Nayakka Rulers and the Maravar Chieftains of Ramnad (17th Century).
iii. Ballads narrate the struggle between the Palaiyakkars and East India Company (17th-18th Century).
4. History and Tamil Novels. 15 12
i. Historical Novels in Tamil
ii. Historical romances in Tamil iii. Historical Fantasies in Tamil
5. Intensive study of literary texts in the context of historiography. 30 16
i. Kattappomman Katai-p-patal by N.Vanamamalai
ii.Vaanam Vasappadum by Pirapanjan (Novel)
1. Vanamamalai, N.(Ed), 19971, Virapandiya-k-katta-p-pomman Kataippatal. Madurai: Madurai University
2. Pirapanjan, 2012, Vanam Vasappadum, Chennai: Kavitha Publications
1. Rajan.K., 2006, Tolliyal Nokkil Sangakalam, Chennai: IITS
2. Vanamamalai, N., 198, “Historical Ballads”, Folk Interpretation of Tamil Creations, Trivandrum: Dravidian Linguistics Association pp.203-255
3. Rajagopalan,T., 1993, “Varalaarum Varalaarruth Tamil Novelum”, Varalaarru Novelkalil Varalaarruch Ceythikal, Chennai: pp.11-102
4. Kumari Mainthan, 2004. “Ilakkiyaththil Varalaaru”, Indiya Varalaarril Puraanankal ,Ilaakiyankal, Vaaniyal, Madurai:Venkai Pathippakam. pp.85-113
5. Sivasuramanian,A. 2008: “Kathai-p-paadalkalum Varalaarum”, Tamil-k- kathaippaadalkal, Edited by Balachandran, R. and Dhananjeyan, A., New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp.73-79
6. Pillai,K.K., 2000, Thamizhaka Varalaaru Makkalum Panpaadum. Chennai: IITS
7. Thakkar, Kala, K., 1988, Kalki- Munshi Varalaarru Novelkal Oor Oppeedu, Chennai: Tamil Puthakalayam.
Tamil Literature and Sociology (Marks75+25)
The aim of the course is to train the students to read Tamil literature with sociological approaches. It introduces the social history of Tamilnadu to enable the student to understand the history of Tamil literature in sociological context. It teaches the the correlation of social structure, material production and literary production. This course will also train the student to study and analyze literary texts from the perspective of Marxist literary criticism and other sociological theories.
Units of the Course: Marks Periods
1. An Introduction: Marxism and Literature: 10 08
i. Relationship between literature and society,
ii. Sociology of literature
iii. Art and Literature in various social orders
2. Social History of the Tamils: 10 08
i. Ancient period (300 B.C-400.A.D)
ii. Medieval Period (400 A.D-900 A.D)
iii. Post Medieval Period (900 A.D-1300A.D)
iv. Colonial and Modern period (19- 20th Century)
3. Marxism and Modern Tamil literature: 15 10
Criticism, Novels, Modern Poetry
4. Tamil Literature and Socio-political Movements. 20 16
i. National politics and Gandian movement
ii. Social Reformation and self- respect movement.
iii. Gender politics and feminist writings
iv. Dalit politics and Dalit Literary Movement.
5. Study of Literary Texts. 20 16
i. Thenir by D.Selvaraj
ii. Dalit Short Stories: 5 stories only
a) Dharman- Thazhumbu (pp. 7-16)
b) Abimani- Nokkadu (17-24)
c) Imayam – Uravu (37-50)
d) Vizhi.Pa. Ithayavendan – Aasai (73-84)
e) Srithara ganesan – Uurkali (139-147)
|iii.||Poems of Modern Tamil poetess: (5 poems only)|
|a)||Amarantha – Petham (p.33)|
|b)||Andal priyadharshini – kaiviri (pp. 39-40)|
|c)||Ilampirai – Aruvadai-k-kalam (pp.45-46)|
|d)||Krushangini – Ilappukal (p. 64)|
|e)||Thamarai – prithalum prithal Nimiththamum (120-121)|
1. Selvaraj. D. 1973, Thenir, Chennai: Kavitha Publications.
2. Ithayavendan, Vizhi. Pa., (Ed), 2000, Dalit Cirukathaikal, Chennai: Kaavya.
3. Kirushangini (Ed), 2001, Parathal Athan Suthanthiram, Chennai: Kaavya
1. K.K.Pillai, 2000, Tamilaga Varalaru: Makkalum Panpadum, Chennai: IITS. PP.14-26; 128-183; 220-245; 421-453; 508-550
2. Poornachandran,K.(Tr). 1999, “Samookaviyalin Nilaimai”, Samookaviyal Mikach Churukkamaana Arimukam, Puthanatham: Adaiyalam.pp.1-23
3. Thiraviyam,K., 1974, Desiyam Valartha Tamil, Chennai: Pumpukar Pirasuram.
4. Letchumi.J.R. 1999, “Gandhiya Puthinankalum Anmaip Pokkukalum”, Akilan- Ra.Su Nallaperumal Novelkalil Gandhiyam, Chennai: Monika Pathippakam. PP- 41-68)
5. Aravanan,K.P., 1992, “Ilakkiya-c-Camukaviyal” (pp.14-47), “Tholkappiya Camukaviyal” (pp. 48-61), “Canka Ilakkiya Camukaviyal” (pp. 62-91), “Ara Ilakkiyach Camukaviyal” (pp. 92-125), “Kappiya Camukaviyal” (pp. 126-161), “Bhakthi : Ilakkiyach Camukaviyal” (pp. 162-179), “Bharathi and Bharath Dasan Camukaviyal” (pp. 180-279), “Putthilakkiya Camukaviyal” (pp 280- 321), Tamil Ilakkiya-c- Camukaviyal, Puthucherry: Tamil Kottam.
6. Sivasubramaniyan. A., 2005, “Desiyamum Ilakkiyamum” Tamil Ini-2000:Ulaka- t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan.P and Cheran. U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu. pp.417-425
7. Athiyaman. Pazha., 2005, “Tamil Ilakkiyaththil Indiya Desiyam: Oru Visarippu” Tamil Ini-2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu, pp- 426-432
8. Arasu, V. 2005, “Dravida Ilakkiam”, Tamil Ini-2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu, pp 455-456.
9. Rajendra Cholan, 2005, “Tamilakaththil Marksiya Ilakkiyam”, Tamil Ini-2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan, P and Cheran, U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu, pp 459-479.
10. Jeyaprakasam,P. 2005, “Tamilakaththil Marksiya Ilakkiyam”, Tamil Ini-2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U. Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu. pp.485-501
11. Ramasamy, A., 2005, “Tamizhakaththil Dalit Ilakkiyam”, Tamil Ini- 2000:Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U. Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu. pp.507-523
12. Mangai A., 2005, “Penniyamum Ilakkiyamum” (553-554), Tamil Ini-2000: Ulaka-t-tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru, Edited by Mathivanan,P and Cheran, U., Nagercoil: Kalachuvadu.