M.A. (Linguistics)
Language and Linguistics :

  • Speech and writing.
  • The key properties of language.
  • Functions of language.
  • Modern Linguistics.
  • Describing Language I : Phonology and morphology
  • Syntax and semantics.
  • Language, Context and Communication – pragmatics and its scope.
  • Applied Linguistics : Translation and Lexicography; Language disorder; forensic
  • linguistics.
  • Language and mind.
  • Language and artificial intelligence – computational linguistics
  • Major language families of the word.
  • Language diversity in India – Language familities represented in India.
  • Languages specified in the VIII Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

General Phonetics

  • Branches of phonetics; use of phonetics.
  • The Anatomy and Physiology of Speech : The organs of speech.
  • Initiation of Speech : Pulmonic, glotallic, velaric.
  • Phonation : Voiceless; voiced; whisper; glottal closure.
  • Speech Articulation : Consonant and vowel; State of velum; direction of air flow; force of
  • articulation; Prolong ability; manner of articulation; place of articulation.
  • Description and Classification of Consonants – Place of Articulation; Manner of Articulation.
  • Vowels – position of the tongue and position of the lips.
  • Cardinal vowels – primary and secondary; diphthongs.
  • Suprasegmental (or Prosodic) aspects of Speech
  • Syllable and its structure – on set, peak, coda
  • Sounds in Connected Speech : Assimilation and dissimilation; elision.
  • Transcription – Phonemic (broad) and phonetics (narrow); diacritics.

Phonology :

  • Phonemics and phonology
  • Phone, allophone and phoneme
  • Segmental or linear phonemes
  • Complementary distribution of allophones; free variation.
  • Phonemic Analysis : Preliminary procedures.
  • Supra – segmental or non – linear phonemes – stress, pitch, juncture
  • Phonotactics : The study of the distribution of phonemes.
  • Distribution of English consonantal phonemes.
  • English vowel phonemes in word initial, medial and final positions.
  • English diphtongs – closing and centering.
  • The theory of `distinctive features.
  • The concept of `neutralization’ and `archiphoneme’

Introductory Morphology :

  • Morphology – its definition and scope.
  • Morph, allomorph and morpheme
  • Morpheme and word
  • Conditioning of allomorphs.
  • Affixes – prefixes, suffixes and infixes.
  • Base, root and stem.
  • Inflection and derivation.
  • Word formation – compounding
  • Mophological Process : Affixation, internal change, reduplication, suppletion and zero modification.
  • Morphophonemics – the phonological structure of morphemes.
  • Morphemic Analysis – Segmentation and grouping; Nida’s principles for identification of morphemes.
  • Identifying plural morphemes of English and Identifying past tense morphemes of English.

Introductory Syntax :

  •  Syntax and morphology
  •  Modern approaches to syntax
  •  Constituent and construction
  •   Types of construction – endocentric and exocentric
  •   Immediate constituent analysis.
  •   Syntactic Devices : Coordination or conjoining, subordination or embedding, substitution.
  •   Function words and content words :
  •   Grammatical categories and parts of speech.
  •   Models of Grammatical Description : Item and arrangement; item and process; word and paradigm.
  •   Aims of grammer
  •   Levels of grammatical adequacy
  •   Phrase structure Grammar : Context free and context sensitive phrase structure grammer.
  •   Introduction to transformational generative grammar.

Basic Elements of Semantics

  •  Semantics and its scope.
  •   Types of Meaning
  •   Componential Analysis
  •   Semantic Oppositions
  •   Sense Relations : Synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy and incompatibility; part – whole relations.
  •   Homonymy and Polysemy.
  •   Semantic Structure of Sentences : Arguments and predicates – predication analysis.
  •   Selectional restrictions.
  •   Figurative use of language.
  •   Approaches to the study of meaning.
  •   Semantics and pragmatics.

Historical Linguistics :

  •  Historical linguistics – its definition and scope.
  •  Historical Linguistics versus descriptive linguistics.
  •  Genealogical classification of languages.
  •   Major language families of the world.
  •   Languages of the Indo-European family.
  •   Typological classification of language.
  •   Phonological change : Phonetic and phonemic change.
  •   Types of sound change – assimilation, dissimilation and some other types of sound change.
  •   Types of semantic change – narrowing and widening of meaning.
  •   Analogical change.
  •   Borrowing I : Lexical and phonological
  •   Borrowing II : Cultural and intimate.

Language Teaching :

  •  Linguistics and language teaching – role of linguistics in language teaching.
  •  Principles of language teaching.
  •   Native and Foreign language teaching.
  •   Language skills.
  •   Methods of Language teaching.
  •   Selection, graduation and presentation of the teaching materials.
  •   Contrastive analysis.
  •   Contrasting languages at phonological, grammatical and lexical levels.
  •   Error Analysis : Mistakes, lapses and errors; transfer errors and analogical errors.
  •   Stages in Error Analysis : Recognition, description and explanation of errors.
  •   Language Testing : Subjective and objective tests; types of objective tests; open ended and multiple choice tests.
  •   Audio visual aids in language teaching.
  •   The language laboratory and language teaching.

Language and Literature

  • Characteristics of the language of literature.
  • Linguistics and critical approaches to the study of literature.
  •   The term `stylistics’ – its definition and scope.
  •   The Term `Style’ : Various senses and definitions of the term `style’ – linguistics and non linguistics definitions of style.
  •   Style as the choice between alternative expressions.
  •   Style as deviation from the norm.
  •   Phonological Analysis of Poems.
  •   Stylistic Devices I : Alliteration, Consonance, assonance, rhyme.
  •   Stylistic Devices II : Foregrounding, parallelism, repletion, antithesis.
  •   Phonological and lexical cohesion.

Language and Society :

  •  The relationship of language and Society – Sociolinguistics and its scope.
  •  Alternative approaches to the social study of language.
  •   The concept of speech community; verbal repertoire.
  •   Language variation – describing the varieties of language.
  •   The social parameters of variation.
  •   Ethnography of communication; communicative competence.
  •   Language diversity – bilingualism and multilingualism.
  •   The concept of `diglossia’.
  •   Languages in contact – borrowing
  •   Pedgin and creole; code switching and code mixing.
  •   Language policy and language planning.
  •   Corpus and status planning.
  •   Language standization and modernization.
  • Language diversity in India – issues and problems.

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